Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves. Bluetooth transmits in the ISM that’s for “Industrial Scientific Medical Devices Band” from 2402 to 2483.5 megahertz also known as the 2.4 gigahertz short-range radio frequency band including its guard bands and as such it’s also completely colorless. Well the original standard was developed by the telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994 as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables.But it didn’t receive the name Bluetooth until 1997 when Jim Kardach, who developed a communication system between mobile phones and computers proposed it. Introduction of the Bluetooth standard facilitates communication between two to eight devices where there is one master device and up to seven slave devices. While it was only intended to replace serial cables, it can do so much more- you can wirelessly control and communicate between a mobile phone or tablet and hands-free headset. Car audio system, speaker system and intercom. You can network with a PC to transfer files, you can control printers and computer peripherals, barcode scanners and traffic control devices and even replace infrared scanning in some cases. So how does it work- Well there are two main components. At the physical level it works pretty much the same place as any other radio frequency standard with antennas that can broadcast and receive signals in the appropriate bends.
But at the protocol level, things get a little bit different. To ‘achieve a robust enough connection’ for communication use, even in environments with interference. Bluetooth communicates with very short transmission bursts and then quickly does micro hops around, to various frequencies within its range and it allows more than one device to transmit on the same frequency at the same time. But constant transmission of data means higher power consumption and for years most bluetooth device has suffered from short battery life and made the standard impractical for many applications. Until a few years ago Bluetooth 4.0 or Bluetooth Smart came on the scene. It is basically the power efficient version of Bluetooth that has enabled amazing stuff like devices with one to two years of battery life on a single button cell. But one issue with Bluetooth smart accessories is that they can only be used with Bluetooth smart ready primary devices, smartphones, notebooks, tablets a qualification given to phones that are by definition compatible with Bluetooth smart accessories, meaning that there is no backwards compatibility between phones with older versions of Bluetooth like 2.0 and 3.0 . Bluetooth smart ready primary devices however are backwards compatible with accessories that run older versions of Bluetooth. One other cool Bluetooth 4.0 fact is that range is no longer locked down so while manufacturers can opt to optimize for more traditional 10 meter or 30 meter ranges, it is possible for devices to work at 60 meters or beyond. Finally, bluetooth is a low speed interference resistant communication protocol that allows devices to transfer data across multiple platforms at short range and now with great efficiency.
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